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ground snow load vs flat roof snow load

The determination of the drift load that is required for unbalanced snow load cases requires the use of the ground snow load, pg, not the roof snow load. Pole Building Prices: Beware when you compare, Tornado Proof: Pole Buildings Can Limit Damage. Trust me, I know all too well, and my character analysis consistently reads “does not like numbers”! Q: There are two different rafter tables in the IRC code book: Live Load and Snow Load. Ce is the wind exposure factor for roofs. Roof snow load is a much more important statistic and is computed from the ground load in a region. But when we discuss roofs these days, live loads are generally associated with the weight that the roof structure might be asked to endure while the roof is under construction or renovation (reroofing). (3) The ground snow load should be 40 psf. Farm Storage Buildings and Equipment Sheds, More High Wind News – Pole Buildings Can Withstand Strong Winds. Be sure you keep “roof” and “ground” snow loads separate. Another type of load that code addresses is snow, where accumulation can concentrate extra weight in smaller areas for periods of time. Doing the math, it would be unusual, using the laws of physics, for Pf to be greater than Pg – however, some jurisdictions have established Lr values which defy the laws of physics (e.g. Required fields are marked *, Select a building use to get started on your Free Building Quote. Call 866.200.9657 for a free consultation now! GROUND SNOW LOAD (otherwise known as Pg). 4 to the National Building Code of Canada gives detailed design information. This Load is measured in Pounds per Square Foot (English). Higher Loads in Steps in Geographic Regions of Low Ground Snow – The basic ground snow is now a major part of the 1995 NBCC calculation in the form of the non-dimensional roof length (γl*/ S s). There’s No Education Like Real Life Business Experience, Shouse Dimensions, UK Plans, and Chance of Tear-out, Unseen Danger of Hiring a Building Contractor. Ct is the effect of temperature (building heating), where: Ct = 1.0 for heated structures (climate controlled), Ct = 1.1 for Structures kept just above freezing and others with cold, ventilated roofs in which the thermal resistance (R-value) between the ventilated space and the heated space exceeds 25h – ft^2 – degreesF/Btu. Snow loads acting on a sloping surface shall be assumed to act on the horizontal projection of that surface. Dear Pole Barn Guru: Concrete Footing or Not? However, a South Roof Load Zone home cannot be installed in either a Middle or North Roof Load Zone. This guru will grant you the answer to one pole barn question! Provisions on how to calculate the snow drift surcharge for structures can be found in Section 7.8 of ASCE 7-10. In other words, on a steep roof, less material would be stacked in a concentrated area at one time, to avoid having it slide off. Ground Snow Load Values for Ontario and Quebec. This results in a decrease in the ability of the roof to carry snow loads. An equivalent ground snow load of 73 psf may be used to calculate roof loads with no reductions. Because when it comes to getting your building designed, priced and finally plans signed off by your building department, there is a difference! Yes I know, it is white (at least it starts out that way). These figures are established by the local jurisdiction, in my case the state of Massachusetts, which lists ground snow loads for each town in the state. Your email address will not be published. In my region on Cape Cod, we have a ground snow load design of 25 psf, which is a greater design load than the live load (12 psf to 20 psf) over an entire roof system. Using the term “live loads” when referring to roofs might make you scratch your head initially because roofs, unlike floors, aren’t asked to bear the weight of things such as furniture and occupants of a home—what you would normally think of as a live load. to help guide you in the design of your new pole building. Yes, I know this is a lot of stuff to carry around in your head. Other considerations for sloped roofs can be found throughout Chapter 7 of ASCE 7-10. The Hansen Buildings vision is to be the industry leader in post frame building kits as solutions to personal living, storage and agricultural needs while making great service a priority. I find that code commentaries do a good job of explaining the basis of a code requirement, and in the case of Section R301.6, the commentary suggests that 20 psf is a pretty severe live-load condition and is most likely to be concentrated in a small area of the roof, as with a stack of shingle bundles. from Eave to Ridge, W: ft. Horizontal Distance from Eave to Ridge: Type of Roof Roof snow loads for the following counties (in pounds-per-square-foot ground snow load) will give you some idea of the wide range of specifications across the U.S. (Keep in mind that specific locations within these counties may have snow loads modified by local authorities.) These loads can include the construction crew and their tools, as well as roofing materials, like sheathing, roof shingles, and underlayment, that may be stacked in concentrated areas of the roof for short periods of time before they are installed and are evenly distributed (photo 1). ASCE I is a structure which is a low hazard to life in the event of a failure. A grace period is being offered until the end of October 2020. Cautionary Warning: The information contained herein is fairly technical in nature. Victor Staley is a building official in the town of Brewster, Massachusetts. 1995 Ground Snow Load Table. 1. Length of Roof Upwind of the Snow Drift: Length of Low Roof, LL: ft. My last caution is to be careful when asking your building department about snow load. Manufacturers should revise their design based on these requirements as soon as possible. Your email address will not be published. If the snow was entered as a Snow Load in Modeler (and not as Roof Live Load), then it is identified with the abbreviations Sp (for positive snow load, i.e. The basis for the snow load computation in ASCE 7-05 is the ground snow load. Ground Snow Load might seem somewhat confusing until you read the basic premise that is identified in IRC Section R301.6, which states: “The roof shall be designed for the Live Load indicated in Table R301.6 or the Snow Load indicated in Table R301.2(1), whichever is greater.”. Ground Snow Load, pg: psf: Figure 7-1, pages 84-85 and Table 7-1, page 92: Length of High Roof, Lu: ft. Roof loads are a downward (vertical) force on the home. In the past, design snow loads were often considered to be equal to the ground snow load with reductions allowed for sloped roofs only. Read More…, Things You Never Wanted to Know About Snow Load. A: Victor Staley, a building official in the town of Brewster, Mass., responds: This issue of Live Load vs. Sliding snow from a sloped roof; Imbalanced snow loads (variations in the amount of snow) For a typical building in most of Ohio, the ground snow is 20 psf; allowing for the snow that blows off, the actual design load can typically be reduced to 14 psf. You need to use a snow load formula for flat roofs. The industry’s most comprehensive post frame blog. Concrete Footing: How Thick Should it Be? 2010 Ground Snow Load Table for Ontario. Pf is FLAT ROOF SNOW LOAD – If, as a consumer, your concern is snowfall and you want to upgrade the ability of … From Pf, Pr (Pressure on the roof) values are calculated depending upon whether the roof is a slippery surface or not, whether building is heated or not and the slope of the roof. We use ALL of this information in the design of your new Hansen Pole Building. Dist. 6. Pf is FLAT ROOF SNOW LOAD – If, as a consumer, your concern is snowfall and you want to upgrade the ability of your building to carry it, THIS is the value to increase. Table R301.6 also takes into account that the steeper the roof, the less chance higher concentrated loads will occur. When discussing snow load with anyone, it is crucial to have a clear understanding as to if the load is a ground or flat roof snow load. Pg = ground snow load Pf = flat roof snow load = Pg*I*Ce*Ct Ps = sloped roof snow load = Pf*Cs Use our Roof Snow Load Calculator to determine your design roof snow loads. Some clients will think this is all very cool, for others, it may cause your head to explode. Compact Kitchen Remodel - Common Code Mistakes - Installing an Endless Pool, JLC Online: Best practices for professional builders and remodelers. Permissible snow load: USA. I take this as meaning that stacking the sheathing or roof shingles would initially concentrate the load (if stacked in one spot), rather than having that same live load acting on the entire area of the roof. Local jurisdictions have guidelines for the roof framing to accommodate those loads. Lr is adjusted based upon the area the roof member supports and can be as low as 12 psf, in cases where a roof member supports over 600 square feet of area. Ice density is around 57 pcf. To calculate Roof Snow Load per Residential Building Code: 0.7 x pg (ground snow load) = pf (roof snow load) Roof Snow Load Examples: Above line: 0.7 x 60 psf = 42 psf Below line: 0.7 x 50 psf = 35 psf . This may also be true in some more moderate climates as well. 260plf combined uniform load = 140plf, or 54% of 260, snow (S) load portion and 120plf, or 46% of 260, dead load portion; 650lbs combined point load = 350lbs, or 54% of 650, snow (S) load portion and 300lbs, or 46% of 650, dead load portion. 2005 Ground Snow Load Tables. Some Examples of this include Higher elevations in Utah and Kittitas County, WA where the BO has declared DOL = 1.0. The easiest way is to push a yardstick into the snow on the roof, selecting an area that looks typical of the overall snow depth. 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Our recommendations on ground-to-roof conversion factors incorporates what we consider to be the most accurate information on the topic. • Alameda County, CA: 0 psf • Dallas County, TX: 5 psf Obtain the recorded snow load -- the maximum load expected to accumulate on the ground -- for your area. Is = 0.87, ASCE II residences and frequently occupied commercial buildings (a warehouse or storage building is probably ASCE I) Is = 1.0, ASCE IV Is = 1.2 (these are “essential” essential facilities – police/fire stations, hospitals). The snow load that is applied to our structure is not the ground snow load, but in most cases, the flat roof snow load. A building can be a tough decision. The ground snow load, P g, shall be indicated.In areas where the ground snow load, P g, exceeds 10 pounds per square foot (psf) (0.479 kN/m 2), the following additional information shall also be provided, regardless of whether snow loads govern the design of the roof: Flat-roof snow load, P f. Snow exposure factor, C e. Snow load importance factor, I. Measure the horizontal distance from eaves to the ridge -- the point where the roof is tallest -- and record the result labelled as "run." This document provides for all roof snow loads to be calculated from ground snow loads, however not every Building Department follows this procedure. The ground snow load is pretty much what it sounds like: A predictable load situation that is derived from snowfall records over the years in a particular region (photo 2). Paolo Formichi, University of Pisa Italy If the ground snow load isn’t specified, then a ground snow load needs to be assumed – and the Truss Designer and the Building Designer may not be on the same page as it relates to this design assumption. The International Code specifies design snow loads are to be determined according to Section 7 of a document called ASCE 7. If you live in the US, our snow load calculator compares the total weight on your roof with the permissible load calculated according to the standards issued by the American Society of Civil Engineers regarding the Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures (ASCE7-16). The ground snow loads to be used in determining the design snow loads for roofs shall be determined in accordance with ASCE 7-10 or Figure 1608.2. The sloped roof snow load, p s, shall be obtained by multiplying the flat roof snow load, p f, by the roof slope factor, C s: p s = C s p f Roof load (live load) design is affected by the shape of the roof whether it is flat, curved or pitched. factor. In areas with little or no snowfall (where Lr > Pr) DOL = 1.25. For example, consider a roof with a run of 12.2 metres (40 feet). Posted at December 21, 2014, in Technical. nestled in tightly amongst conifer trees as an example) Exposure B = 1.2, Exposure C = 1.1 (how you could have Exposure C and fully sheltered is beyond me), We use partially Exposed (Ce = 1.0 as a default). If you have any questions or concerns about specific ground snow loads within the State of … 2010 Ground Snow Load Table for Quebec. Ground Snow Load might seem somewhat confusing until you read the basic premise that is identified in IRC Section R301.6, which states: “The roof shall be designed for the Live Load indicated in Table R301.6 or the Snow Load indicated in Table R301.2(1), whichever is greater.” When using Figure 1608.2 for sites at elevations above 1,000 feet (304 m), the ground snow load shall be increased from the mapped value by 2 psf (0.095 kN/m 2 ) for every 100 feet (30.48 m) above 1,000 feet (304 m). These values should only be used when appropriate. For ground snow loads greater than 20 pounds per square foot, the roof load is equal to 70% of the product of the exposure, thermal and importance factors, the ground snow load, and 20 (pounds). Founded by J.A.Hansen, Hansen Pole Buildings, LLC, was formed as a limited liability corporation in 2002, as an internet-based business providing custom designed, high quality pole building kits at affordable prices. The value used for the ground snow load should represent the snow load that has a 50 year mean recurrence interval, or, in other words, a 2% probability of being exceeded in any given year. This is considerably less than the 25 psf that the old codes required. The Ground Snow Load data along with the Building Geometry will generate factors that convert this Load into the applied Roof Snow, Snow Drift or Sliding Snow Loads. Snow load is the downward force on a building’s roof caused by the weight of accumulated snow and ice. Roof snow load calculation. 2.0 GROUND SNOW LOADS There seem to be two conflicting interpretations out there regarding minimum snow loads as defined in ASCE-7-98. The ASCE 7-16 standard requires both balanced and unbalanced snow load case scenarios for a structure's design consideration. When discussing snow load with anyone, it is crucial to have a clear understanding as to if the load is a ground or flat roof snow load. (University of Arkansas Division of Agriculture) If using the heaviest wet snow value for roof designed to sustain 40 psf of snow load then it can be viewed that it should be capable of supporting nearly 24" inches of wet heavy snow. 5. The Top Chord Live Load (TCLL) of any roof trusses will be the greater of Pr or Lr. Snow loads shall be determined by the building official. Most truss designers will use a Ct value of 1.0 or 1.1 in their designs. Therefore, the ratio of roof live and dead and snow and dead are the same as the basic loads we used to From our example, our ground load and flat roof snow load were found to be 30 psf and 21 psf, respectively. Often changes of five or 10 pounds per square foot result in minimal differences in cost. If you have any concerns as you are determining your flat roof snow load, consult with a structural engineer or roofing specialist. In colder regions the design snow load represents snow deposited by multiple snow events. Duration of Load (DOL) for Snow is typically 1.15. Ground Snow Load (Pg) This edit box is used to define the Ground Snow Load for the Building or Shape. Look at our collection of building photos for creative ideas! All these numbers and “code requirements” are why we not only ask, but insist you must take the page of our quote with the Design Criteria to your building department to get their blessing on it, and ask if there is anything else they require. First, figure out how deep the snow is piled up there. Background and Applications Section 4 - Snow load on the ground The snow load on the roof is derived from the snow load on the ground, multiplying by appropriate conversion factors (shape, thermal and exposure coefficients). State of Oregon, where most of the state has a minimum Lr of 25 psf – exceptions being some locations along the coast, where it is 20). 2. In our case, let’s assume that our structure has a flat roof (roof slope ≤ 5°). This statistic is not often directly relevant, although heavy snow can damage some landscaping features. The National Building Code of Canada requires buildings to be designed to carry uniformly and nonuniformly distributed snow loads and the "Commentary on Snow Loads" in Supplement No. psf (pounds per square foot) ABOVE LINE 60 PSF . Ground snow load refers to the weight of water per square foot that is exerted on the ground by the snow pack. One way to estimate snow load on a roof is to go to an area on the ground nearby the shed or barn. (2) The roof design live load should be 40 psf; but 30 psf could be used for flat roof up to 2%. For an Exposure B or C for Wind; Fully Exposed = 0.9; Partially Exposed = 1.0; for fully sheltered (e.g. Length of Roof Downwind of the Snow Drift: Horiz. The flat roof snow load is calculated using formula 7.3-1: 3. Such design loads were admittedly crude and are known to have resulted in overdesign in some roofs while allowing underdesign in others, particularly in areas subject to high drift load. From a design standpoint there are lots of things to know about snow loads. What is the difference and how do I know which one applies? There is also a Minimum Roof Live Load (known as Lr) of 20 psf (defined by Code) (psf = pounds per square foot) which accounts for weights such as construction loads, when Pg values are very low. The use of unrealistically high Pg values causes issues with the design for drifting snow. The ANSI snow load subcommittee took advantage of this new information to update and improve calculation of roof snow loads. 60 ground snow PSF BELOW LINE 50 PSF 50 ground snow … Estimating the weight of snow and ice on a roof is difficult because snow density can range from 3 pounds per cubic foot (pcf) for light, fluffy snow to 21 pcf for wet, heavy snow. Once you have the ground snow load, p g, you can compute the flat roof snow load, p f. The design snow load represents the peak snow accumulation on a roof over the a winter season. I’ve been waiting three decades to pass along this information to a client, as I’ve always felt the understanding of it is pretty impressive. Site designed and … DOL can play a part in some snow areas, where the Building Official (BO) has made the determination snow will remain upon the roof for extended time periods. While this may be more intuitive for flat or even gable/hip type roofs, the determination of snow loads is increasingly more difficult for arch roofs due to complex geometry. This is based upon a once in fifty year (probability of event greater than design loads happening is 2% in any given year). Code requires roofs to be built strong enough to carry more than just their own weight including live loads such as the weight of workers and stacked up materials concentrated in small areas. 7 of ASCE 7-10 feet ) end of October 2020 our collection of building photos for ideas. About specific ground snow load subcommittee took advantage of this include Higher elevations in Utah and Kittitas,... Are two different rafter tables in the town of Brewster, Massachusetts: ground snow load vs flat roof snow load. Any roof trusses will be the most accurate information on the ground snow loads within the of... Seem to be determined by the building or Shape the most accurate information on the.. 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