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what is cognitive flexibility theory

The Cognitive Flexibility Theory, introduced by Spiro, Feltovich, and Coulson in 1988, is about how learning takes place in “complex” and “ill-structured domains”. And in restructured contexts, for various purposes, and from different conceptual perspectives. Cognitive Flexibility Theory is a prescriptive instructional design theory which suggests that non-linear learning environments such as hypertext or hypermedia support complex learning and avoidance of oversimplification in learning. Developed in late 80's by Dr. Rand Spiro (educational psychologist @ Michigan State University) What is it? [.... ] Cognitive flexibility hypertext fosters the development of knowledge-transfer skills by confronting the learner with multiple representations of case-events. We refer to the principled use of flexible features inherent in computers to produce nonlinear learning environments as Random Access Instruction (Spiro & Jehng, 1990).". Cognitive flexibility theory is especially formulated to support the use of interactive technology (e.g., videodisc, hypertext). In other words, learners must be flexible in their understanding of a topic to apply important concepts.”. The program provides a number of different clinical cases which students must diagnose and treat using various sources of information available (including advice from experts). 2003). The Role of Learning Tasks on Attitude Change Using Cognitive Flexibility Hypertext Systems, Journal of the Learning Sciences, 13 (4) 507-526. Central to its argument is the claim that most of the variance on theory-of-mind tasks can be attributed to the development of flexible perspective taking. Cognitive flexibility also involves the ability to apply previously acquired knowledge in a new way. Cognitive flexibility resides at the intersection of awareness, adaptability and confidence. Definition of Cognitive flexibility in the Definitions.net dictionary. According to Godshalk et al (2004: 510), Cognitive Flexibility Theory “maintains that instruction in complex, ill-structured domains must allow the learner to "crisscross" the domain knowledge by comparing and contrasting information gained from different perspectives and themes pertinent to the domain. 57-76). Cognitive flexibility is a component of executive functioning, and is the ability to switch between two different concepts and think about multiple things simultaneously in a way that is organized and functional. In particular, multidimensional and nonlinear hypertext systems, if appropriately designed to take into account all of the considerations discussed above, have the power to convey ill-structured aspects of knowledge domains and to promote features of cognitive flexibility in ways that traditional learning environments (textbooks, lectures, computer-based drill) could not (although such traditional media can be very successful in other contexts or for other purposes). ), Cognition, education, and multimedia: Exploring ideas in high technology (pp. What this and other studies do is clue us in to some key ideas for how to improve cognitive flexibility, ultimately making us more resilient, creative, and confident. A synthesized research definition of cognitive flexibility is a switch in thinking, whether that is specifically based on a switch in rules or broadly based on a need to switch one’s previous beliefs or thoughts to new situations. The cognitive flexibility theory was created by Rand J. Spiro, Richard L. Feltovitch and Paul J. Coulson. This chapter examines the labeling function of language, in this case as an aid to cognitive flexibility. Cognitive Flexibility Theory focuses on the nature of learning in complex and ill structure domain. Moreover, it refers to simultaneously considering multiple aspects of thought at once, whether they be two aspects of a … Example. (in press). A synthesized research definition of cognitive flexibility is a switch in thinking, whether that is specifically based on a switch in rules or broadly based on a need to switch one's previous beliefs or thoughts to new situations. Some information may be missing or may be wrong, spelling and grammar may have to be improved, use your judgment! Knowledge representation, content specification, and the development of skill in situation-specific knowledge assembly: Some constructvist issues as they relate to cognitive flexibility theory and hypertext. Cognitive Flexibility Theory (R. Spiro, P. Feltovitch & R. Coulson) TUPAZ CRIZEL MAE S. BSED1 Cognitive Flexibility Theory OVERVIEW Cognitive flexibility theory focuses on the nature of learning in complex and ill-structured domains. How to Improve Cognitive Flexibility Skills Cognitive flexibility has been described as the mental ability to switch between thinking about two different concepts, and to think about multiple concepts simultaneously. The construing–constructing distinction is critical, and it became an issue because the French verb construire can be translated as either “to construe” (i.e., to integrate elements to make sense of) or “to construct” (i.e., to build something). Cognitive flexibility is the human ability to adapt the cognitive processing strategies to face new and unex-pected conditions in the environment (Cañas et al. This article or chapter is incomplete and its contents need further attention. Cognitive Flexibility Theory: Themes of Advanced Knowledge Acquisition Where has our research on the problems of advanced knowledge acquisition led us? Meaning of Cognitive flexibility. When students are working through problem-solving activities they might have to apply multiple concepts or ways of thinking to find a solution. 163-205). Please cite this article as: Spiro, R. J., Feltovich, P. J., Jacobson, M. J., & Coulson, R. L. (1992). The Cognitive Flexibility Theory was introduced by Spiro and Jehng in 1990. Cognitive flexibility is an important skill for children to learn because it is naturally built into their school day. Cognitive flexibility and hypertext: Theory and technology for the nonlinear and multidimensional traversal of complex subject matter. “Cognitive Flexibility Theory” in Discourses on Learning in Education. This article or chapter is incomplete and its contents need further attention. By seeing multiple representations of the same phenomenon learners develop the mental scaffolding necessary for considering novel applications within the knowledge domain. Cognitive Flexibility theory and education, Cognitive Flexibility Theory and Educational Technology, “Cognitive flexibility theory suggests that learners grasp the nature of complexity more readily by being presented with multiple representations of the same information in different contexts. A vital demand made by the Cognitive Flexibility Theory is to reuse educational material at different times. (1987, 1988), Spiro and Jehng (1990) and Feltovich et al. The goal is for the learner to understand the interconnection of domain concepts and to avoid "oversimplification" and "rigid" thinking regarding the content area. Davis, B., & Francis, K. (2020). LEA restricted access, The educational technology and digital learning wiki. Spiro, R. J. What is … Cognitive Flexibility Theory is asserted to be among Non-Trivial Constructivisms, concerned with learning in complex domains in which ill-structured situations are common, such as history, biology, law, and medicine. Example: Jonassen, Ambruso & Olesen (1992) describe an application of cognitive flexibility theory to the design of a hypertext program on transfusion medicine. Learn more in: Examining the Effectiveness of … In addition, research pertaining to adults and elders is becoming more and more popular of an interest for study on this theory. According to ‘‘conversion theory’’ (Moscovici, 1980), majority members resolve this tension by trying to ‘‘validate’’ the minority position, which involves considering its relation to the issue itself. [.... ] Cognitive flexibility … In D. Nix & R. Spiro (Eds. Essentially, it is your ability to adapt when a situation changes. Research on CFT-informed learning environments suggests that flexible thinking during learning activities supports the development of higher order thinking skills (e.g. Application of understandings, learner is … repertoire of established facts, Knowing …!,, and our cognitive flexibility Theory was created by Rand J. Spiro, Richard L. Feltovitch Paul... Skills ( e.g through processes of internal codification acquisition led us and its contents need further attention and. ( 1991 ) ( pp from different conceptual perspectives ill structure domain learning in Education grammar... 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